April 2015: JASACT attends JAFA

April 26, 2015

Prepared by members Sue and Cheng

As last year, we cancelled our April meeting, as many of us had attended, the weekend before, sessions of this year’s Jane Austen Festival Australia.

 Symposium on Jane Austen’s Men

According to the original program there were to be 6 speakers in the Symposium, but on the day we had four. The same thing happened last year, and both years it was the two male speakers who didn’t turn up. Coincidence?

Janet Lee: “Oh what a Henry”: the brothers of Jane Austen

Edward Austen Knight, c. 1788

Edward Austen Knight, c. 1788

Janet Lee’s presentation primarily comprised brief biographies of Austen’s brothers:

  • James, b. 1765: went to Oxford at 14. He wrote poetry, and edited the Loiterer magazine. Lee told us of the theory that an article in this magazine by Sophia Sentiment was in fact written by Jane Austen, and that this would then be her first published work. His daughter was Anna.
  • George, b. 1766: had some form of disability, possibly epilepsy, and did not live with the family.
  • Edward, b. 1767: adopted by a wealthy distant cousin, made formal in 1783, when he took on the name Austen-Leigh. He didn’t go to Oxford, but did a 4-year Grand Tour. His daughter was Fanny, and it was her son Lord Brabourne who found the Jane Austen’s letters.
  • Henry, b. 1771: was the first child born at Steventon. He went to Oxford, joined the regimentals. He had various careers: militia officer, banker, minister. He was the brother who got into the most scrapes, including bankruptcy, but for Jane was the popular can-do-no-wrong brother.
  • Frances, b. 1774: joined the Navy when he was 11 years old. He rose to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. He married the family friend, Martha Lloyd, when they were both 63.
  • Charles, b. 1779: joined the Navy when he was 12 years old, becoming Rear-Admiral. He was one of Jane’s first readers.

Cassandra was born in 1773, and Jane 1775. Lee made the point that given the number of children and the large age range, they did not spend a lot of time all living together, but they wrote letters and visited each other, demonstrating the importance of family. Un­married women had to be supported by brothers, as Edward did for his mother and sisters after their father died. After Jane died, Cassandra owned the copyright, while Henry negotiated the publish­ing of her books.

Katrina Clifford: Friendless, brotherliness, openness, uprightness: Naval men in ‘Persuasion’

Clifford commenced by reminding us of Louisa’s enthusiastic speech on sailors to Anne at Lyme. She:

burst forth into raptures of admiration and delight on the character of the navy: their friendliness, their brotherliness, their openness, their uprightness; protesting that she was convinced of sailors having more worth and warmth than any other set of men in England; that they only knew how to live, and they only deserved to be respected and loved.

Anne’s reaction is quieter, more rational, but no less positive about these people who “would have been all my friends”. Clifford argued that this group of sailors is unique in Austen’s novels. We see how they live, work and think, at home, not at war, as the novel is set during the so-called False Peace of the Napoleonic Wars. The naval community was, Clifford said, often accused of clannishness during Austen’s times.

Lyme, she said, is where we see this naval community the most, and where Anne becomes most aware of the community she lost in rejecting Wentworth (just as visiting Pemberley enables Elizabeth to see the life she’d rejected). Property in Pride and prejudice, becomes community/company in Persuasion. Naval company, Anne sees, is more warm than her father’s dinners of display.

Persuasion conveys much about the character of naval men, in particular:

  • Brotherliness: kinship terms are used to describe the community, such as “brother-officers”. Henry V had used the term “we band of brothers” but Clifford argued that Admiral Nelson used it to convey a caring for the well-being of all, including the family, which is what we see depicted in Austen’s naval community. An example is the care taken of Captain Benwick after the death of his fiancée. Clifford also mentioned the “fraternity” catch-cry of the French Revolution, but said that Austen’s concept of “fraternity” included women. “We” says Mrs Croft. Anne and Captain Harville, she said, speak like siblings.
  • Blurring of gender expectat­ions: Clifford argued that Persuasion “dismantles gender boundaries”, blurring distinctions between masculine and feminine. Harville talks of the role of women in society, and Wentworth in the navy; Harville speaks on how men feel, demonstrating a female-like emotional openness. The naval community is depicted as a meritocratic community in which woman are recognised for their abilities: Mrs Croft’s intelligence, Mrs Harville’s nurturing skills, and Anne’s ability to hold her head in a crisis. The Navy is shown to support a genuine attachment to family and an interest in home: Captain Harville made the home livable, and Benwick has feminine qualities and yet is not seen as effeminate. Men at sea must do domestic work, and women at home need to do practical things. Women who found themselves on board during battle would take on various duties, including being nurses, and powder monkeys for canons.

Clifford suggested that Austen was proposing that the Navy might present a model of how Britain could move forward as a nation, that she is presenting a framework for society.

Heather Nielson: Suitors in ‘Emma’ and ‘Persuasion’

Nielson commenced by referring to the final scene in the 1995 film version of Persuasion which showed Anne on board with Captain Wentworth. While this is not in the book, she said, it is a fair extrapolation.

Nielson quoted Gore Vidal’s statement:

Each writer is born with a repertory company in his head. Shakespeare has perhaps twenty players, and Tennessee Williams has about five, and Samuel Beckett one – and maybe a clone of that one. I have ten or so, and that’s a lot. As you get older, you become more skillful at casting them.

… and proceeded to look at some similarities in Austen’s characters across the novels. Anne (described by Harold Bloom as having “rational perceptiveness”), for example, shares an ability to see logical consequences with Fanny Price and Elinor Dashwood, while the “eroded and abraded” Elizabeth Elliot presents a vision of what Emma might have become without the presence of Mr Knightley. Then, she said, there are the upstarts, such as Mrs Elton and Mary Musgrove.

Nielson then moved on to look at the suitors in Persuasion – Captain Wentworth, William Elliot and Captain Benwick. It’s Captain Wentworth, she argued, who needs “persuasion”.

Anne is, she argued, initially attracted to William Elliot – to his knowledge of the world and his apparent warm heart – but she’s uncertain. She’s learnt to distrust Lady Russell’s advice. She also distrusts his sudden interest in their family, and finds him, perhaps, too agreeable. This shifts him from being a credible suitor, like Captain Benwick and Pride and prejudice’s Colonel Fitzwilliam, to being more like Wickham and Willoughby. These, and Henry Crawford, she described as “chameleon suitors”.

They are chameleon because they exude “excessive agreeability”, while being something quite different. Yet, while honesty is good, people do also need to temper forthrightness. She exemplified this by the scene in which the Mrs Musgrove expresses sadness about her late ne’er-do-well son who had served under Captain Wentworth:

There was a momentary expression in Captain Wentworth’s face at this speech, a certain glance of his bright eye, and curl of his handsome mouth, which convinced Anne, that instead of sharing in Mrs. Musgrove’s kind wishes, as to her son, he had probably been at some pains to get rid of him; but it was too transient an indulgence of self-amusement to be detected by any who understood him less than herself; in another moment he was perfectly collected and serious, and almost instantly afterwards coming up to the sofa, on which she and Mrs. Musgrove were sitting, took a place by the latter, and entered into conversation with her, in a low voice, about her son, doing it with so much sympathy and natural grace, as shewed the kindest consideration for all that was real and unabsurd in the parent’s feelings.

True gentlemen and women, in other words, must be able to discriminate, but manage their expression of it. Jane Austen’s dedication of Emma to the Prince Regent is an example of Austen’s “social palliation” (or, “civil falsehood”, as we JASACT audience members muttered to ourselves), given what we know to be her attitude to the Prince’s treatment of his wife.

Continuing with Emma, Nielson contrasted the plain, English Mr Knightley, with the “dandified, continental” Frank Churchill (as he is described by critic Darryl Jones).

Gillian Dooley: Men and music

Dooley presented her thesis that in Austen music does not “confer good character” on men and that, generally, Austen’s heroines should beware men who make music with them. The heroes tend to be those who appreciate music, who listen and turn pages, rather than practitioners themselves.

She commenced her discussion with Sense and sensibility, pointing to Marianne who had to have a man who concurred with her in taste. Willoughby’s “musical talents were considerable” we are told. By contrast, Edward Ferrars appreciates Eleanor’s playing as a lover not a connoisseur. Similarly, Colonel Brandon appreciates Marianne’s playing early in the novel:

Colonel Brandon alone, of all the party, heard her without being in raptures. He paid her only the compliment of attention; and she felt a respect for him on the occasion, which the others had reasonably forfeited by their shameless want of taste. His pleasure in music, though it amounted not to that extatic delight which alone could sympathize with her own, was estimable when contrasted against the horrible insensibility of the others …

Dooley went on to look at other novels:

  • Pride and prejudice:  Darcy listen to Elizabeth intently at Rosings, and fosters his sister’s musical ability
  • Mansfield Park: Mary Crawford is a good musician, and Edmund and Fanny her listeners
  • Emma: Jane Fairfax and Emma both play but Emma “knew the limitations of her own powers too well to attempt more than she could perform with credit” while Frank Churchill “was accused of having a delightful voice, and a perfect knowledge of music; which was properly denied; and that he knew nothing of the matter, and had no voice at all, roundly asserted.” Frank, the deceiver, can sing! Music plays a significant role in the novel’s plot machinations. Emma misses Mr Knightley’s jealousy regarding Frank, and Frank’s interest in Jane.  Mr Knightly on the other hand appreciates music with a moral discernment.
  • Persuasion: Anne mostly plays for herself: “She knew that when she played she was giving pleasure only to herself; but this was no new sensation. Excepting one short period of her life, she had never, since the age of fourteen, never since the loss of her dear mother, known the happiness of being listened to, or encouraged by any just appreciation or real taste. In music she had been always used to feel alone in the world”. Captain Wentworth, was of course, that “short period in her life”. He was, Austen tells us, “was very fond of music”. Dooley sees Captain Wentworth as one of Austen’s best male characters – and he likes music, but is not a musician.

Keynote Speech. Gemma Betros: Jane Austen’s Waterloo

Britain was just emerging from 22 years of war (1793 – 1815) with France and Dr. Betros first gave a succinct outline of these wars and the politics of the period.

Jane Austen lived most of her life during war-time and, like many of her fellow countrymen, did not refer to it very often in either her letters or novels. It was “like permanent bad weather” that was to be faced stoically.

Yet the results were inescapable in her daily life. Her own naval brothers’ activities, Henry Austen’s militia duties and later his bankruptcy, the presence of French emigres such as her own cousin Eliza, were events close to home.

Over 1 million British men fought and the wounded and disfigured returned soldiers were to be seen everywhere in the streets.

The fear of invasion was constant – in 1807 the entire nation was mobilised for war and a mock invasion was practised. Recruiting and taxes must have seemed never-ending.

Newspapers gave conflicting reports and were often delayed. The news of the victory of Waterloo on the 18th June took several days to reach London and was only confirmed by Wellington when he returned on the 21st.

Jane Austen was a war novelist, a uniquely sensitive one. Her works are suffused with war.

Dr. Betros listed many examples of characters and events in her novels related to the wars – General Tilney, Lydia and Brighton, William Price and Admiral Croft.

In Sanditon was the only use of the word ‘Waterloo’, when Mr. Parker regretted having named his house ‘Trafalgar’ rather than Waterloo House.

Persuasion illustrates the social changes during and after war and the character of Anne Elliot, waiting, evokes the troubles of war.

The common belief that Jane Austen’s supposedly sheltered life led her to ignore the realities of the age was very effectively refuted, for indeed the history of those times infused that of her novels.

Dr. Betros’ recommended reading list:

  • Brian Southam, Jane Austen and the Navy
  • Jenny Uglow: In these times: living in Britain through Napoleon’s wars, 1793 – 1815
  • Jocelyn Harrris: A Revolution almost beyond expression: Jane Austen’s ‘Persuasion’
  • Mary Favret: “Everyday war”, English Literary History, Vol. 72, No. 3 (2005)

 


April Meeting

April 13, 2015

The April Meeting, which should have been this Saturday April 18th, has been cancelled as many members are unable to attend because of other commitments. However, many of us met at the symposium at the Jane Austen Festival at the Albert Hall on Friday 10th April, enjoying the Regency ambience and the varied talks on aspects of Jane Austen’s novels, especially the male characters.

We will now discuss Volume III of Emma at the next meeting on Saturday, May 16th. The topics for future meetings have been adjusted and listed on the blog.


March 2015 Meeting: Emma, Vol 2

March 22, 2015

Emma covers

Prepared by member Jenny K.

Tantalising clues and false leads together with careful plotting mark Jane Austen’s Emma, Volume II

A carefully constructed persona and the imaginist character of the heroine serve to create entertainment in this section of the book.

Frank Churchill’s avowal of “being the wretchedest being in the world at a civil falsehood” followed by Emma’s assertion that she does not believe “any such thing. I am persuaded that you can be as insincere as your neighbours when it is necessary…” set the tone for the games of misinterpretation that are to follow. Apparently, the critic, D.W.Harding, suggested that society can only survive through civil falsehoods.

Mr Knightley serves as the central still point in the novel around which spin Emma’s dynamism and Frank Churchill’s resourcefulness. While some felt that Emma and Mr Knightley’s conversation was stilted compared to that of Mrs Elton, Harriet Smith and Miss Bates, it was also suggested that it may have been an indication of their deeper feelings.

Mr Woodhouse’s old fashioned good manners did not disguise his basically tyrannical approach to everyone regarding food and sickness. Emma’s skill at managing her father, lovingly, was praiseworthy.

This volume was likened to a musical fugue with the introduction of four new themes – three new characters – Frank Churchill, Jane Fairfax and Mrs Elton with their back stories — and the Broadford square piano. Fugal threads of Harriet, “swayed by half a word”, Mr Elton with his smug self-satisfaction, the Martin family with their good manners, Emma’s dislike of Jane, Miss Bates’ stream of consciousness and Mr Woodhouse’s whimsies play out, interlacing the plot.

Mrs Elton with her opinion of having “quite a horror of upstarts” was seen as one of Austen’s “grand” comical creations by some. She certainly serves as a perfect foil for Emma.

Discussion involving the possible entrapment of Emma in an enclosed society was divided. Most felt she was “too cheerful” – happy to be a big fish in a small pond. Some felt that Emma’s extreme snobbishness became increasingly irritating. But the idea of gentlemen and “half-gentlemen” attending the whist parties was a source of considerable amusement.

Two interesting pieces of research were very telling. One revealed that the much vaunted “barouche-landau” revealed the carriage as being a strong indication of the nouveau riche status of Mrs Elton and her sister’s family. It was middle class hybrid version of the landau and the barouche even if it was expensive. The other research revealed Mr Knightley in his discussion with his brother John, as a most progressive agricultural innovator. He was following the latest ideas in crop rotation, enclosing fields and using drainage. But as a good neighbour, he planned to check with the village concerning the rerouting of a pathway through his property. Once again, he showed his generosity, even though he had “little spare money.”

Our meeting ended with our usual teasing quiz provided by our quiz master although she was unable to attend herself. True devotion to the cause.

Business matters:

  1. John Wiltshire will be speaking on the topic of “Emma: a heroine no-one will like” to the Southern Highlands branch of JASA (JASH) on Thursday, April 9, 2-4pm.
  2. Walking Jane Austen’s London by Louise Allen is a newly published book for those going overseas.
  3. Our resident Jane Austen quilt maker, Marilyn, will be presenting a session on how to recreate Jane Austen’s quilt at the Jane Austen Festival Australia on Friday, April 10, repeated on Saturday, April 11, at the Albert Hall.
  4. The next meeting on Saturday, April 20th will consider the final volume of Emma.

March Meeting

March 17, 2015

The March meeting is this Saturday, 21st March, at 1.30pm in the Friends’ Lounge of the National Library. We will be discussing Volume 2 of Emma, that is chapters 19 to 36 inclusive.


Jane Austen Festival Australia’s Symposium on Jane Austen’s Men

March 1, 2015

The volunteer-run Jane Austen Festival Australia, which was first held in 2008, is back again in 2015, and will run from Friday 10 to Sunday 15 April. Organiser Aylwen Gardiner-Garden describes it as “a living history event”. This means it includes historic reenactment, costume, music and dance of the Regency and Georgian eras, as well as presentations on Jane Austen and her novels and on the social and political history of the times.

The 2015 Festival’s theme celebrates:

the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo, which is generally credited as Napoleon Bonaparte’s final defeat; – a significant event in European history that deeply affected the lives of every Englishman and the World. Bonaparte would soon surrender his troops and abdicate the throne, ending a seventeen year conflict between Britain and France, and other European nations.  Jane Austen had very little to say about the Battle of Waterloo or any aspect of the Napoleonic War, however, one novel does use war centrally as part of the frame: Persuasion. (from the About page)

The full program is available on the website, and tickets can be purchased on-line. Day tickets and full conference tickets are available.

Events that might be of particular interest to JASACT members are:

  • Symposium on Jane Austen’s Men, on Friday 10 April at the Albert Hall. A Day Ticket for Friday costs $50. The program comprises 6 speakers: Janet Lee, Katrina Clifford, Will Christie, Heather Neilson, Marcus Adamson and Gillian Dooley. Will Christie’s talk is on Mr Knightley which fits well with our study of Emma this year. Looks as interesting as last year’s Mansfield Park Symposium was.
  • Keynote Speaker, on Saturday 11 April at Albert Hall: Dr Gemma Betros’ “Jane Austen’s Waterloo”. Dr Gemma Betros is Lecturer in European History at The Australian National University. She holds a PhD in History from the University of Cambridge, and in 2012 was a Visiting Fellow at the Chawton House Library in the United Kingdom,which is now Centre for the Study of Early English Women’s Writing, 1600-1830. She is currently writing a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Mr Bennet’s Bride, play by Emma Wood at Theatre 3, on Saturday 11 April at 7.30pm, and Sunday 12 April at 9am and 2pm. Attendance at the Sunday morning session is included in the program for full ticket holders, but tickets ($35/$25) for any of the three sessions can also be purchased from Canberra Rep, Tel 6257 1950 OR at http://www.canberrarep.org.au.

February 2015 Meeting: Emma, Vol 1

February 22, 2015

Emma covers

Discussion

Since 2015 is the 200th anniversary of the publication of Jane Austen’s Emma*, JASACT decided to do one of its slow reads. This means reading the novel a volume at a time over three monthly meetings, as we’ve done for Mansfield Park (in 2010), Sense and sensibility (in 2011), and Pride and prejudice (in 2012). We enjoy the additional insights we achieve, from both the slow reading and the meeting discussions that focus on the volume just read.

What an artist you are!

We commenced by talking about the novel’s structure. A member commented that volume 1 was complete in itself, building up to the climax of Mr Elton’s proposal. We noted that by the end of this volume it was clear to us, if not to Emma, that Mr Knightley’s criticism of the yet unmet Frank Churchill might spring from reasons besides those rational ones he gives.

The volume starts with Austen systematically introducing Highbury’s characters, chapter by chapter, first Emma, her father and Mr Knightley, then Mr and Mrs Weston (Emma’s recently married governess/companion), followed in chapter 3 by some neighbourhood women, Mrs and Miss Bates and Mrs Goddard, and so on.  Volume 1, we realised, focuses on Highbury insiders, that is, the people who live in/come from the town.

A member quoted Sir Walter Scott’s praise of Austen’s “knowledge of the world, and the peculiar tact with which she presents characters that the reader cannot fail to recognize …”. We agreed that Austen is wonderfully true to human nature, and that we still recognise her characters today.

Emma, an MA in people management?

Of course, we spent quite a bit of time discussing Austen’s characterisation of Emma. She is a complex character, one whom Austen herself described as “a heroine whom no one but myself will much like”. However, a member quoted critic Lionel Trilling‘s statement that Jane Austen’s achievement is that we do like Emma despite her faults.

And this is because Emma has many good qualities. She has managed her father’s home since she was 12, having lost her mother when she was 5. Her father is a querulous “valetudinarian” to whom Emma panders with love and care, attending to his every comfort. She is, we decided, an amazing daughter. She defuses potential family conflicts, such as in the humorous scene involving her father and sister arguing over the merits of their respective apothecaries. She frequently holds her tongue when provoked by her kind but unsociable brother-in-law. She faces her mistakes, owning up to Harriet, for example, that she had been wrong about Mr Elton.

Emma also visits and provides help to the sick and poor in their community.

But, she is a snob. She tells Harriet that, had Harriet accepted Robert Martin:

it would have grieved me to lose your acquaintance, which must have been the consequence of your marrying Mr. Martin … I could not have visited Mrs. Robert Martin, of Abbey-Mill Farm.

On Mr Elton’s proposal to her, she thinks

but he must know that in fortune and consequence she was greatly his superior. He must know that the Woodhouses had been settled for several generations at Hartfield, the younger branch of a very ancient family,—and that the Eltons were nobody.

Attitudes like this have resulted in Emma not being liked by many readers. We talked about whether Jane Austen accepted Emma’s views or felt Emma needed to change – but, we decided we were getting ahead of ourselves!

Messrs Woodhouse, Elton and co

Of course, we discussed other characters too, and touched on all sorts of ideas. Does, a member asked, Mr Woodhouse knowingly/purposefully manipulate others through his fussy, spoilt-child like behaviour? Can we see a touch of Mr Collins in Mr Elton? Was Miss Taylor a good role model for Emma? Why do critics and readers readily fuss over Colonel Brandon’s age when, at 35 years old, he’s younger than Mr Knightley’s 37 or 38?

We enjoyed Austen’s statement that Mr Weston’s second marriage

must have give him the pleasantest proof of its being a great deal better to chuse than to be chosen, to excite gratitude than to feel it.

And we commented that Mr John Knightley was wrong not to accompany Emma on the carriage ride back from the Westons, thereby exposing her to Mr Elton’s attentions. We noted that, although Mr Elton had partaken of alcohol, “he had only drunk enough wine to elevate his spirits, not at all to confuse his intellect”. We loved that Austen made this distinction.

Is bigger better?

We enjoyed Austen’s sly little dig at the length of the letter Mr Elton wrote advising of his departure for some weeks to Bath. The letter is described as “long, civil, ceremonious”. This directly contrasts Robert Martin’s proposal letter to Harriet which “was short, but expressed good sense, warm attachment, liberality, propriety, even delicacy of feeling”. We note the point about length because Emma overlooks Harriet’s poor taste in suggesting that Robert Martin’s letter may be deficient because it is “short”.

It’s all about friendship

We discussed how each time we reread an Austen, we find something new. One member said that for this reading of Emma, she noticed the focus on friendship. The novel starts with Emma losing her ex-governess-cum-companion Miss Taylor to marriage. They’ll remain friends but … so Emma develops a friendship with Harriet. The words “friend” and “friendship” appear multiple times in volume 1. Mr John Knightley advises Emma “as a friend”, but Emma believes that she and Mr Elton “are very good friends, and nothing more”. Emma and Mr Knightley decide to “be friends again” after one of their quarrels. Meanwhile, we, like Mr Knightley, wonder whether Emma’s friendship is helpful to Harriet or not.

One member asked why Emma didn’t go mad, living all those years with her father and just (the albeit much-loved) Miss Taylor. She had no friends of her own age, and had never been to the sea, to London 16 miles away, or even to Box Hill just 7 miles away.

What Jane Austen’s contemporaries would have known

One member said she particularly focused on the things that readers in Jane Austen’s time would have known. For example, why did Emma immediately assume that the illegitimate Harriet’s father was a gentleman? Her research unearthed the fact that Harriet’s father would have had three options available to him: marry the baby’s mother, go to prison, or support the child for 7 years. However, Harriet was still being supported at Mrs Goddard’s school at the age of 17, having been raised from “scholar to … parlour-boarder.” Austen’s readers would have understood the implications of this information.

It was a time when new money was on the rise, resulting in new ideas of entitlement and conflict with old money. This could explain Mr Elton’s presumption to aspire to Emma’s hand!

We discussed the possible origins of some of the names, and what was meant by Emma arranging “the glasses” in the carriage. A member found Janine Balchas’ Matters of fact in Jane Austen useful for her research into the times. Balchas, this member told us, argues that Austen was influenced by Fanny Burney’s novels, and suggests, in fact, that the carriage proposal in Evelina may have inspired Austen.

One member enjoyed the amount of wordplay, anagrams and puns in the novel, but several admitted to not being able to work them all out. We hoped that was because Jane Austen’s contemporaries were more practised at such games than we are in our times! It was suggested that the novel has the feel at times of those lively 18th century literary salons.

Business

We ended the meeting with quotes, another challenging quiz, and an agreement that we all looked forward to reading Volume 2 over the coming month.

* Published in late 1815, with imprint date of 1816


February Meeting

February 17, 2015

The February meeting is this Saturday, February 21st, at 1.30pm in the Friends’ Lounge of the National Library of Australia. We will be discussing the first volume of Emma, that is Chapters 1-18.


Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 26 other followers