June 2015 meeting: Secondary sources on Emma

June 20, 2015

Emma coversHaving spent our last three meetings discussing Emma, volume by volume, we devoted our June meeting to discussing secondary sources on Emma, with each member, where possible, choosing one source and discussing its main points. We love seeing the different themes different critics or academics explored and, even more so, the very different opinions expressed on some of the characters

Christopher Brooke, Jane Austen: Illusion and reality (1999)
Brooke, our member said, was generally positive about characters that the critics have tended not to be. He sees Mr Knightley as fallible, Mr Woodhouse as fine, and Frank Churchill the hero of the subplot. He argues for example that Mr Knightley’s jealousy of Frank Churchill exposes Mr Knightley’s feet of clay, while Frank Churchill’s sanguinity, easy charm, together with the fact that he had a vision for his future (with Jane) are positive things that can endear the reader to him. He also sees Emma as the perfect daughter.

Brooke’s focus, though, is the two levels of Austen’s novels, he surface and what lies beneath. Our first reading of Emma tends to be superficial as we follow the clues, the way we might in detective fiction. He argues that the deepest bonds in the novel are between Harriet Smith and Robert Martin, and Emma Woodhouse and Mr Knightley, but that these couples aren’t focused on during the book.

The book succeeds, he argues, because we see it through Emma’s mistaken vision, through her fixations.

Susannah Fullerton, A dance with Jane Austen (2012)
Fullerton provides general background on ballroom dancing, clothing, etiquette, which helps us understand the role of balls and dances in the novel. Deirdre Le Faye’s introduction tells us that people would sometimes travel up to 20 miles, involving around four hours travelling, to go to a ball.

It is in the two main dances/balls in Emma that we (though not necessarily Emma herself!) become away of her true feelings. On the first occasion, she reacts with horror when Mrs Weston suggests that Mr Knightley might be interested in Jane Fairfax, and on the second Emma becomes acutely aware of Mr Knightley’s charms (“his tall, firm, upright figure”) when he dances with Harriet Smith to save her from Mr Elton’s insulting refusal to dance with her.

Richard Jenkyns, A fine brush on Ivory: An appreciation of Jane Austen (2004)
Jenkyns presents a very different point of view of Mr Woodhouse from Brooke’s benign one. He sees Mr Woodhouse as a vampire spinning a web to keep Emma close. He, in fact, likens Mr Woodhouse to Mrs Norris in Mansfield Park! Mr Woodhouse has no zest for life, no vitality (he argues, for example, that the shorter the party the better). He is the most successful villain in Austen’s books in terms of getting what he wants. He’s stealthy, adept at “false solicitude”. For example, he uses concern for tiring his servant James as an excuse to keep Emma from going out, but is more than happy to use James to bring his friends to him. His disdain for matrimony is an insult to the memory of his wife. He’s a bloodsucker, and the equivalent of what we’d call today “passive aggressive”. It’s telling that kind, sweet Mrs Weston says no-one but Mr Knightley could put up with him.

Has Emma learnt manipulation from him? We discussed at some length whether we thought Emma manipulative, including how we defined “manipulation”.

Maggie Lane, Growing older with Jane Austen (2014)
Maggie Lane looks at Mr Woodhouse from another point of view, his health. He is described as a ‘valetudinarian’, that is, one who has a concern for health (as against a ‘hypochondriac’ who imagines himself/herself sick.) Lane is more positive about him than Jenkyns, arguing that he doesn’t try to elicit sympathy as Mary Musgrove does in Persuasion.  Perhaps he doesn’t because everyone runs after him!

He restricts daughter’s freedom by his feebleness, but then again his helplessness augments her power. Being a dutiful is good for her public credit. Lane posed an intriguing idea: does Emma’s failure to rebel in any way against her father make her more timid than Fanny Price?

(Another article suggests that Mr Woodhouse might have suffered from hypothyroidism, but we agreed that, even if he did, no-one would have known.)

Bruce Stovel, “Emma’s search for a true friend” in Persuasions, #13, 1991
Stovel argues that the novel is about Emma’s search for a true friend. In the novel’s opening we realise the Miss Taylor had not been Emma’s friend in the real meaning of the word. It had been an employer-employee relationship in which Emma listened to her governess but did “exactly what she liked” (a view Mr Knightlely reiterates later to Miss Taylor/Mrs Weston).  And Emma’s choice, Harriet, is not going to be a true friend either. Harriet idolises her, and Emma behaves more as mentor. Emma realises later in the novel that she should have befriended Jane Fairfax, but for all Jane’s qualities, she doesn’t have the openness desired of a real friend. Emma’s true friend all along is of course Mr Knightley.

Stovel defines friendship as involving mutual support among equals. He also discusses the relationship between marriage and friendship, and quotes two writers admired by Jane Austen: a character in Samuel Richardson’s Sir Charles Grandison says that “marriage is the highest state of friendship that mortals can know”; Samuel Johnson wrote in The Rambler that “marriage is the strictest tie of perpetual friendship”.

Austen plays with the idea of friendship throughout the novel. In the proposal scene, Emma realises that she should listen to Mr Knightley “as a friend” even though she expects what he’s going to tell her will be distressing. Stovel says that at this moment she has finally achieved the “self-denying, generous friendship” she ascribes to herself in the novel’s beginning. The novel ends with the new couple sharing their lives with “a small band of true friends”.

Joseph Wiesenfarth, “The civility of Emma” in Sensibilities, Dec 1995 
(also in Persuasions, #18, 1996)
Wiesenfarth explores Emma as a book about civility, about how to behave like a citizen. He writes:

The task of civility was to create a code of conduct for civilization, which implied the harmonizing of peoples from all walks of life. The code of civility, therefore, had to address both sameness and difference in human nature. Sameness inheres in our instinctual life; difference in our birth, class, rank, and wealth as well as in those individual oddities that we used to call humors.

Stupidity and ignorance are the enemy of civility, which is defined by elegance (“the refinement of civility in our appearance, thinking, feeling, and acting”) and amiability (“sensitivity to the needs of others”). Mrs Elton and Harriet are ignorant and/or stupid in their behaviour but many characters do not evince perfect civility, including Mr John Dashwood, Mrs Churchill. Miss Bates, by contrast, is finely attuned to civility, but Frank shows “no English delicacy towards the feelings of other people”. Emma is ashamed of sharing her conjectures, though is not ashamed of thinking them!

Wiesenfarth explores Emma’s sexuality, suggesting that Emma believes that she has it under control, when in fact she doesn’t. He argues that “civility” must recognise and encompass physical needs like food and sex, and must recognise and balance the “sameness” and “difference” between people.

He says that Emma presents readers, who are not “dull elves”, riddles to solve. We enjoyed discussing the novel’s various “riddles” and the ways in which the characters got so many of them wrong.

Other discussion
Other books read:

  • Cambridge companion to Jane Austen which has a chapter on Emma by John Wiltshire, which the member did not find particularly useful
  • William Dersiewicz’s A Jane Austen education. 

One member said that she noticed on this reading what a clever narrative tool Miss Bates is. Miss Bates gives a lot away, such as how often Frank is around her place! She tells us much, in her patter, about who is where, who is seeing whom.

A member noted that Frank assumed his engagement must be secret. Austen doesn’t explicitly tell us, she felt.

We discussed the tensions regarding status throughout the novel: Harriet, the Coles, Mrs Elton, for example. One member suggested that “class” becomes issue when it starts to change. Emma was happy to raise Harriet up, until Harriet sees herself capable of moving up! Mr Elton thinks he can move up. People will mix across classes, eg at dinner, but will be offended if people don’t know their place (e.g. Mrs Elton calling Mr Knightley, “Knightley”.) One member was interested in Robert Martin’s visit to London when Harriet was staying there with the John Dashwoods. On what (social) basis did they all go out together she wondered.

Business

We discussed next year’s JAFA, and the theme for the day symposium. Member Sally will continue working on this and keep us informed.

The meeting concluded with a fun quiz on dancing and balls in Austen, and the usual sharing of quotes.

There will be no meeting in July, in lieu of the biennial JASA Conference to be held in Canberra.


June 2015 Meeting Reminder

June 19, 2015

Our June meeting takes place on Saturday June 20, at 1.30pm, in the National Library of Australia’s Friends’ Lounge. We’ll be discussing secondary sources on Emma, with each member, where possible, reading and sharing with the group a secondary source of her/his choice.

If you can’t find a source, come anyhow, and join the discussion.

See you there.


JASACT participates at JAFA

May 21, 2015

Prepared by member Cheng

We are very proud of our member Marilyn, who kindly agreed to help JAFA (Jane Austen Festival Australia) by giving two classes in English Paper Piecing techniques. Marilyn is a skilled and enthusiastic quilter who, after undertaking extensive research into suitable fabrics and the right geometry for the “diamond-shaped” piece, has almost completed a stunning facsimile of the quilt that Jane and her sister Cassandra made.

Faced with tricky conditions on the opening Friday – the only space available was the unlit, unheated mezzanine balcony level of the hall – our intrepid member gamely persevered with her first class. On the Saturday, in a slightly warmer upstairs room with better lighting, she held the second class and was able to illustrate it with exquisite examples of quilting.

Both Marilyn and her students are to be congratulated on their dedication to their craft and we hope that next year we will see the finished quilts inspired by these workshops!


May 2015 meeting: Emma, Vol 3

May 18, 2015

Emma coversPrepared by member Jenny K

At the conclusion of our slow-reread of Emma, the group generally agreed that Emma becomes a different book each time you read it. The more you read, the more you are rewarded by discoveries of her brilliant skills. Emma, likened by P.D. James to a detective novel with the same tight structure, analysis of motive and concealing of mysteries from the reader, yields up more clues and more character misapprehensions each time.

Emma, being an “imaginist”, “creates what she sees.” But even the normally astute Mr Knightley begins to wonder if he does too. All the characters, we decided, have their share of creating realities to suit themselves, while Frank enjoys leading many astray.

Volume 3 is packed with events, including:

  • The ball, at which Emma first notices how handsome Mr Knightley appears and is delighted when he dances with Harriet and herself, is the beginning of a chain of circumstances.
  • Harriet’s encounter with the gypsies is far more serious than modern readers realise as she could have been hanged for conversing with them. It was muscle cramp following the dancing that prevented her escape.
  • The strawberry party at Donwell Abbey gives Mrs Elton the opportunity to further demonstrate her gaucherie following the couple’s appalling treatment of Harriet at the ball. This led the group to wonder why the community put up with her behaviour. We decided that in a small community it is necessary to maintain form to safeguard cohesiveness, that practising “civil falsehoods” has a place!
  • In Chapter 5, Austen suddenly shifts the perspective from Emma to that of Mr Knightley when he becomes a detective observing subtle communications between Frank and Jane. However, he is still convinced of Emma’s attraction to Frank which is necessary as a plot driver. Austen contrives to strengthen his fear with Emma’s flat denial of his belief concerning Jane and Frank
  • Finally, the Box Hill picnic is at once revealed as a most remarkably deft piece of writing when one realises how Frank was trying to hide his desperate anguish following the argument with Jane Fairfax. It was this that caused him to so badly overplay his hand. Emma compounds the rudeness with her remark about Miss Bates – showing off in an immature fashion. Both characters are roundly told off by those who love them.

Emma’s contrition is profound especially following Jane’s disdain. However the group was undecided as to whether Frank’s letter was sufficient to exonerate his bad behaviour. Was it too full of self-justification? People wondered whether Jane’s marriage was somewhat pragmatic, once having discovered Frank’s essential selfishness.

Sir Charles Grandison’s advice (in Samuel Richardson’s novel of the same name) against women marrying profligate men seemed possibly relevant …”when she cannot be sure of keeping her own principles! – be not deceived : evil communication corrupts good manners: is a caution truly apostolical.” Jane, who had suffered severely during the entire secret engagement, was decidedly contrite following the denouement. We noted that Richardson’s novel is believed to be one of Austen’s favourite novels.

Physical separation from Mr Knightley combined with the discovery that Harriet believes that he has regard for her, plunge Emma into despair recognising all the mischief she had done. Her desperate realisation that she loves him is tempered by her concern for Harriet. Finally she gains emotional maturity enabling her to be an appropriate partner to Mr Knightley.

Our meeting concluded, as usual, with a testing quiz on Volume 3, and a sharing of quotes.

Business

We briefly discussed the Jane Austen Festival Australia, and what role we might play in supporting the day-long Austen-focused symposium.

It was announced that we now have a gmail contact address which will make it easier for interested people and prospective members to contact us: jasacct2001[AT]gmail[DOT]com.

Our next meeting on 20 June will feature discussion of our research into secondary sources about Emma, with each member being asked to comment on one secondary source they choose to read.


May Meeting

May 12, 2015

The May meeting will be held this Saturday, May 16th, at 1.30pm in the Friends’ Lounge of the National Library of Australia. We will be discussing Volume 3 of Emma.


April 2015: JASACT attends JAFA

April 26, 2015

Prepared by members Sue and Cheng

As last year, we cancelled our April meeting, as many of us had attended, the weekend before, sessions of this year’s Jane Austen Festival Australia.

 Symposium on Jane Austen’s Men

According to the original program there were to be 6 speakers in the Symposium, but on the day we had four. The same thing happened last year, and both years it was the two male speakers who didn’t turn up. Coincidence?

Janet Lee: “Oh what a Henry”: the brothers of Jane Austen

Edward Austen Knight, c. 1788

Edward Austen Knight, c. 1788

Janet Lee’s presentation primarily comprised brief biographies of Austen’s brothers:

  • James, b. 1765: went to Oxford at 14. He wrote poetry, and edited the Loiterer magazine. Lee told us of the theory that an article in this magazine by Sophia Sentiment was in fact written by Jane Austen, and that this would then be her first published work. His daughter was Anna.
  • George, b. 1766: had some form of disability, possibly epilepsy, and did not live with the family.
  • Edward, b. 1767: adopted by a wealthy distant cousin, made formal in 1783, when he took on the name Austen-Leigh. He didn’t go to Oxford, but did a 4-year Grand Tour. His daughter was Fanny, and it was her son Lord Brabourne who found the Jane Austen’s letters.
  • Henry, b. 1771: was the first child born at Steventon. He went to Oxford, joined the regimentals. He had various careers: militia officer, banker, minister. He was the brother who got into the most scrapes, including bankruptcy, but for Jane was the popular can-do-no-wrong brother.
  • Frances, b. 1774: joined the Navy when he was 11 years old. He rose to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. He married the family friend, Martha Lloyd, when they were both 63.
  • Charles, b. 1779: joined the Navy when he was 12 years old, becoming Rear-Admiral. He was one of Jane’s first readers.

Cassandra was born in 1773, and Jane 1775. Lee made the point that given the number of children and the large age range, they did not spend a lot of time all living together, but they wrote letters and visited each other, demonstrating the importance of family. Un­married women had to be supported by brothers, as Edward did for his mother and sisters after their father died. After Jane died, Cassandra owned the copyright, while Henry negotiated the publish­ing of her books.

Katrina Clifford: Friendless, brotherliness, openness, uprightness: Naval men in ‘Persuasion’

Clifford commenced by reminding us of Louisa’s enthusiastic speech on sailors to Anne at Lyme. She:

burst forth into raptures of admiration and delight on the character of the navy: their friendliness, their brotherliness, their openness, their uprightness; protesting that she was convinced of sailors having more worth and warmth than any other set of men in England; that they only knew how to live, and they only deserved to be respected and loved.

Anne’s reaction is quieter, more rational, but no less positive about these people who “would have been all my friends”. Clifford argued that this group of sailors is unique in Austen’s novels. We see how they live, work and think, at home, not at war, as the novel is set during the so-called False Peace of the Napoleonic Wars. The naval community was, Clifford said, often accused of clannishness during Austen’s times.

Lyme, she said, is where we see this naval community the most, and where Anne becomes most aware of the community she lost in rejecting Wentworth (just as visiting Pemberley enables Elizabeth to see the life she’d rejected). Property in Pride and prejudice, becomes community/company in Persuasion. Naval company, Anne sees, is more warm than her father’s dinners of display.

Persuasion conveys much about the character of naval men, in particular:

  • Brotherliness: kinship terms are used to describe the community, such as “brother-officers”. Henry V had used the term “we band of brothers” but Clifford argued that Admiral Nelson used it to convey a caring for the well-being of all, including the family, which is what we see depicted in Austen’s naval community. An example is the care taken of Captain Benwick after the death of his fiancée. Clifford also mentioned the “fraternity” catch-cry of the French Revolution, but said that Austen’s concept of “fraternity” included women. “We” says Mrs Croft. Anne and Captain Harville, she said, speak like siblings.
  • Blurring of gender expectat­ions: Clifford argued that Persuasion “dismantles gender boundaries”, blurring distinctions between masculine and feminine. Harville talks of the role of women in society, and Wentworth in the navy; Harville speaks on how men feel, demonstrating a female-like emotional openness. The naval community is depicted as a meritocratic community in which woman are recognised for their abilities: Mrs Croft’s intelligence, Mrs Harville’s nurturing skills, and Anne’s ability to hold her head in a crisis. The Navy is shown to support a genuine attachment to family and an interest in home: Captain Harville made the home livable, and Benwick has feminine qualities and yet is not seen as effeminate. Men at sea must do domestic work, and women at home need to do practical things. Women who found themselves on board during battle would take on various duties, including being nurses, and powder monkeys for canons.

Clifford suggested that Austen was proposing that the Navy might present a model of how Britain could move forward as a nation, that she is presenting a framework for society.

Heather Nielson: Suitors in ‘Emma’ and ‘Persuasion’

Nielson commenced by referring to the final scene in the 1995 film version of Persuasion which showed Anne on board with Captain Wentworth. While this is not in the book, she said, it is a fair extrapolation.

Nielson quoted Gore Vidal’s statement:

Each writer is born with a repertory company in his head. Shakespeare has perhaps twenty players, and Tennessee Williams has about five, and Samuel Beckett one – and maybe a clone of that one. I have ten or so, and that’s a lot. As you get older, you become more skillful at casting them.

… and proceeded to look at some similarities in Austen’s characters across the novels. Anne (described by Harold Bloom as having “rational perceptiveness”), for example, shares an ability to see logical consequences with Fanny Price and Elinor Dashwood, while the “eroded and abraded” Elizabeth Elliot presents a vision of what Emma might have become without the presence of Mr Knightley. Then, she said, there are the upstarts, such as Mrs Elton and Mary Musgrove.

Nielson then moved on to look at the suitors in Persuasion – Captain Wentworth, William Elliot and Captain Benwick. It’s Captain Wentworth, she argued, who needs “persuasion”.

Anne is, she argued, initially attracted to William Elliot – to his knowledge of the world and his apparent warm heart – but she’s uncertain. She’s learnt to distrust Lady Russell’s advice. She also distrusts his sudden interest in their family, and finds him, perhaps, too agreeable. This shifts him from being a credible suitor, like Captain Benwick and Pride and prejudice’s Colonel Fitzwilliam, to being more like Wickham and Willoughby. These, and Henry Crawford, she described as “chameleon suitors”.

They are chameleon because they exude “excessive agreeability”, while being something quite different. Yet, while honesty is good, people do also need to temper forthrightness. She exemplified this by the scene in which the Mrs Musgrove expresses sadness about her late ne’er-do-well son who had served under Captain Wentworth:

There was a momentary expression in Captain Wentworth’s face at this speech, a certain glance of his bright eye, and curl of his handsome mouth, which convinced Anne, that instead of sharing in Mrs. Musgrove’s kind wishes, as to her son, he had probably been at some pains to get rid of him; but it was too transient an indulgence of self-amusement to be detected by any who understood him less than herself; in another moment he was perfectly collected and serious, and almost instantly afterwards coming up to the sofa, on which she and Mrs. Musgrove were sitting, took a place by the latter, and entered into conversation with her, in a low voice, about her son, doing it with so much sympathy and natural grace, as shewed the kindest consideration for all that was real and unabsurd in the parent’s feelings.

True gentlemen and women, in other words, must be able to discriminate, but manage their expression of it. Jane Austen’s dedication of Emma to the Prince Regent is an example of Austen’s “social palliation” (or, “civil falsehood”, as we JASACT audience members muttered to ourselves), given what we know to be her attitude to the Prince’s treatment of his wife.

Continuing with Emma, Nielson contrasted the plain, English Mr Knightley, with the “dandified, continental” Frank Churchill (as he is described by critic Darryl Jones).

Gillian Dooley: Men and music

Dooley presented her thesis that in Austen music does not “confer good character” on men and that, generally, Austen’s heroines should beware men who make music with them. The heroes tend to be those who appreciate music, who listen and turn pages, rather than practitioners themselves.

She commenced her discussion with Sense and sensibility, pointing to Marianne who had to have a man who concurred with her in taste. Willoughby’s “musical talents were considerable” we are told. By contrast, Edward Ferrars appreciates Eleanor’s playing as a lover not a connoisseur. Similarly, Colonel Brandon appreciates Marianne’s playing early in the novel:

Colonel Brandon alone, of all the party, heard her without being in raptures. He paid her only the compliment of attention; and she felt a respect for him on the occasion, which the others had reasonably forfeited by their shameless want of taste. His pleasure in music, though it amounted not to that extatic delight which alone could sympathize with her own, was estimable when contrasted against the horrible insensibility of the others …

Dooley went on to look at other novels:

  • Pride and prejudice:  Darcy listen to Elizabeth intently at Rosings, and fosters his sister’s musical ability
  • Mansfield Park: Mary Crawford is a good musician, and Edmund and Fanny her listeners
  • Emma: Jane Fairfax and Emma both play but Emma “knew the limitations of her own powers too well to attempt more than she could perform with credit” while Frank Churchill “was accused of having a delightful voice, and a perfect knowledge of music; which was properly denied; and that he knew nothing of the matter, and had no voice at all, roundly asserted.” Frank, the deceiver, can sing! Music plays a significant role in the novel’s plot machinations. Emma misses Mr Knightley’s jealousy regarding Frank, and Frank’s interest in Jane.  Mr Knightly on the other hand appreciates music with a moral discernment.
  • Persuasion: Anne mostly plays for herself: “She knew that when she played she was giving pleasure only to herself; but this was no new sensation. Excepting one short period of her life, she had never, since the age of fourteen, never since the loss of her dear mother, known the happiness of being listened to, or encouraged by any just appreciation or real taste. In music she had been always used to feel alone in the world”. Captain Wentworth, was of course, that “short period in her life”. He was, Austen tells us, “was very fond of music”. Dooley sees Captain Wentworth as one of Austen’s best male characters – and he likes music, but is not a musician.

Keynote Speech. Gemma Betros: Jane Austen’s Waterloo

Britain was just emerging from 22 years of war (1793 – 1815) with France and Dr. Betros first gave a succinct outline of these wars and the politics of the period.

Jane Austen lived most of her life during war-time and, like many of her fellow countrymen, did not refer to it very often in either her letters or novels. It was “like permanent bad weather” that was to be faced stoically.

Yet the results were inescapable in her daily life. Her own naval brothers’ activities, Henry Austen’s militia duties and later his bankruptcy, the presence of French emigres such as her own cousin Eliza, were events close to home.

Over 1 million British men fought and the wounded and disfigured returned soldiers were to be seen everywhere in the streets.

The fear of invasion was constant – in 1807 the entire nation was mobilised for war and a mock invasion was practised. Recruiting and taxes must have seemed never-ending.

Newspapers gave conflicting reports and were often delayed. The news of the victory of Waterloo on the 18th June took several days to reach London and was only confirmed by Wellington when he returned on the 21st.

Jane Austen was a war novelist, a uniquely sensitive one. Her works are suffused with war.

Dr. Betros listed many examples of characters and events in her novels related to the wars – General Tilney, Lydia and Brighton, William Price and Admiral Croft.

In Sanditon was the only use of the word ‘Waterloo’, when Mr. Parker regretted having named his house ‘Trafalgar’ rather than Waterloo House.

Persuasion illustrates the social changes during and after war and the character of Anne Elliot, waiting, evokes the troubles of war.

The common belief that Jane Austen’s supposedly sheltered life led her to ignore the realities of the age was very effectively refuted, for indeed the history of those times infused that of her novels.

Dr. Betros’ recommended reading list:

  • Brian Southam, Jane Austen and the Navy
  • Jenny Uglow: In these times: living in Britain through Napoleon’s wars, 1793 – 1815
  • Jocelyn Harrris: A Revolution almost beyond expression: Jane Austen’s ‘Persuasion’
  • Mary Favret: “Everyday war”, English Literary History, Vol. 72, No. 3 (2005)

 


April Meeting

April 13, 2015

The April Meeting, which should have been this Saturday April 18th, has been cancelled as many members are unable to attend because of other commitments. However, many of us met at the symposium at the Jane Austen Festival at the Albert Hall on Friday 10th April, enjoying the Regency ambience and the varied talks on aspects of Jane Austen’s novels, especially the male characters.

We will now discuss Volume III of Emma at the next meeting on Saturday, May 16th. The topics for future meetings have been adjusted and listed on the blog.


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